EZkem Auto Analyzer Methods

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Flow Solution 3100CyanideFlow Solution 3000Flow Solution IV

Flow Solution 3100

Ammonia in Seawater SFA.pdf

This method is used for the determination of ammonia in estuarine and coastal waters (seawater) according to USEPA Method 349.0 and Standard Methods 4500–NH3 G. This method can also be used to analyze low-turbidity limnological and freshwater samples.

The ammonia ion reacts with alkaline phenol and dichloroisocyanuric acid (DIC) to form indophenol blue in an amount that is proportional to the ammonia concentration. The blue color is intensified with sodium nitroferricyanide, and the absorbance is measured at 640 nm. The quality of the analysis is assured through reproducible calibration and testing of the Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA) system.

Ammonia Nitrogen FIA.pdf

This method is used for determining ammonia in drinking water, surface water, and domestic and industrial wastes according to USEPA Method 350.1 and Standard Methods 4500–NH3 H. This method can also be used for the determination of ammonia nitrogen in potassium chloride (KCl) extracts of soils and plants.

Ammonia reacts with alkaline phenol and hypochlorite to form indophenol blue in an amount proportional to the ammonia concentration. The blue color is intensified with sodium nitroferricyanide, and the absorbance is measured at 640 nm.

Ammonia Nitrogen SFA.pdf

This method is used for the determination of ammonia nitrogen in drinking water, ground water, surface water, and domestic and industrial wastes according to USEPA Method 350.1 and Standard Methods 4500–NH3 H. This method can also be used for the determination of ammonia nitrogen in potassium chloride (KCl) extracts of soils and plants.

Ammonia reacts with alkaline phenol and hypochlorite to form indophenol blue in an amount that is proportional to the ammonia concentration. Sodium nitroferricyanide intensifies the blue color. Measure the absorbance at 640 nm. Distillation is required for regulatory compliance.

Chloride FIA.pdf

This method is used for determining chloride in drinking water, surface water, and domestic and industrial wastes according to Standard Methods 4500–CL- G. Additionally, this methods enables chloride analysis according to ISO Method 15682.

Chloride reacts with mercuric thiocyanate, liberating thiocyanate ion by the formation of soluble mercuric chloride. In the presence of ferric ion, free thiocyanate ion forms a highly colored ferric complex, and the absorbance is measured at 480 nm.

This method includes an optional High Throughput (HT) setting that determines chloride concentrations of 5–50 mg/L with an MDL of 1 mg/L at 120 samples per hour without changing the cartridge configuration.

Chloride SFA.pdf

This method is used for the determination of chloride in drinking water, surface water, and domestic and industrial waste according to Standard Methods 4500–Cl- E. Additionally, this method enables chloride analysis according to ISO Method 15682.

Chloride reacts with mercuric thiocyanate, liberating thiocyanate ion by the formulation of soluble mercuric chloride. In the presence of ferric ion, free thiocyanate ion forms a highly colored ferric thiocyanate complex. The colored complex is measured at 480 nm.

Fluoride Standard Methods by ISE and FIA.pdf

This method is used for the determination of fluoride in drinking water, surface water, and domestic and industrial wastes according to USGS Method I-4327-85 and Standard Methods 4500-F ¯ G and using an ion-selective electrode (ISE).

Fluoride is determined potentiometrically using a fluoride-specific ion-selective electrode with a sealed reference electrode in a double-junction configuration. The operation of the fluoride electrode is based upon the potential that develops across a crystal lanthanum fluoride membrane. This potential is proportional to the activity of fluoride ions in contact with the membrane. The fluoride ion activity is related to the free fluoride concentration. The activity coefficient is estimated from the total quantity of ions in solution or the ionic strength. A total ionic strength adjusting buffer (TISAB) is used to stabilize the ionic strengths of the samples at high levels, making their activity coefficients essentially the same. The quality of the analysis is assured through reproducible calibration and testing of the Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) system.

In-Line Distillation Phenol SFA.pdf

This method is used for the determination of phenolic compounds in drinking water, surface water, and domestic and industrial wastes, according to U.S. EPA 420.4. Additionally, this method enables phenol index analysis following in-line distillation according to ISO Method 14402. The Method Detection Limit (MDL) is 0.05 mg/L–phenol. The applicable range of the method is 0.5–1,000 ppb phenol. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Phenol is distilled in-line from an acidic solution at 185 °C. The phenol distillate reacts with 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) and alkaline ferricyanide (FeCN) to form a red complex. The absorbance is measured at 505 nm. The quality of the analysis is assured through reproducible calibration and testing of the Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA) system.

Nitrate Plus Nitrite and Nitrite in Seawater SFA.pdf

This method is used to determine the concentration of nitrate (NO3–) plus nitrite (NO2–) or nitrite singly in estuarine and coastal waters (seawater) according to USEPA Method 353.4 and Standard Methods 4500–NO3 – F. This method can also be used to analyze low-turbidity limnological and freshwater samples. Additionally, this method enables nitrate plus nitrite analysis according to ISO Method 13395.

Nitrate is reduced quantitatively to nitrite by cadmium metal. Nydahl provides a good discussion of nitrate reduction by cadmium metal. The nitrite formed, in addition to any nitrite originally present in the sample, is diazotized with sulfanilamide (SAN) and subsequently coupled with N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (NED). The resulting highly colored azo dye is colorimetrically detected at 540 nm. A calibration curve allows for accurate quantitation of the detected nitrite.

Nitrite singly may be measured without the cadmium reduction. Without the cadmium, nitrate is not reduced to nitrite and is not detected since only nitrite forms the azo dye.

Both nitrate and nitrite may be measured simultaneously by using a two channel flow analyzer. One channel is used to measure nitrate plus nitrite, while the second channel is used to measure nitrite only. Using WinFLOW™ software, the results of the nitrite analysis may be subtracted from the results of the nitrate plus nitrite analysis, thus providing quantitative nitrate results.

The quality of the analysis is assured through reproducible calibration and testing of the Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA) system.

Nitrate Plus Nitrite Nitrogen and Nitrite Nitrogen SFA.pdf

This method is used for the determination of nitrate (NO3–) plus nitrite (NO2–) or nitrite singly in drinking water, groundwater, surface water, and domestic and industrial wastes according to USEPA Method 353.2 and Standard Methods 4500–NO3- F. Additionally, this method enables nitrate plus nitrite according to ISO Method 13395. Also, this method can be used to analyze nitrate plus nitrite in 2M potassium chloride (KCl) extracts of soils and plants.

Cadmium metal reduces nitrate quantitatively to nitrite. Nydahl provides a good discussion of nitrate reduction by cadmium metal. The nitrite formed, in addition to any nitrite originally present in the sample, is diazotized with sulfanilamide and is subsequently coupled with N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride. The resulting highly colored azo dye is colorimetrically detected at 540 nm. A calibration curve allows accurate quantitation of the detected nitrite.

Measure nitrite singly by performing the same analysis as in described before but without cadmium reduction; without cadmium, nitrate is not reduced to nitrite and is not detected since only nitrite forms the azo dye.

Nitrate Plus Nitrite Nitrogen and Nitrite Nitrogen FIA.pdf

This method is used for determining nitrate (NO3–) plus nitrite (NO2–) or nitrite singly in drinking water, groundwater, surface water, and domestic and industrial wastes according to USEPA Method 353.2 and Standard Methods 4500–NO3-. Additionally, this method enables nitrate plus nitrite analysis according to ISO Method 13395. Also, this method can be used to analyze nitrate plus nitrite in 2 M potassium chloride (KCl) extract of soils and plants.

Quantitatively reduce nitrate to nitrite using cadmium metal. Nydahl provides a good discussion of nitrate reduction by cadmium metal. Diazotize the formed nitrite in addition to any nitrite originally present in the sample with sulfanilamide and subsequently couple with N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride. Colorimetrically detect the resulting highly colored azo dye at 540 nm. A calibration curve allows accurate quantitation of the detected nitrite.

Nitrite Nitrogen FIA.pdf

This method is used for determining nitrite nitrogen in drinking water, groundwater, surface water, and domestic and industrial waste according to USEPA Method 353.2 and Standard Methods 4500–NO3- I. Additionally, this method enables nitrite analysis according to ISO Method 13395. This method can also be used for the determination of nitrite in potassium chloride (KCl) extracts of soils and plants.

Diazotize any nitrite originally present in the sample with sulfanilamide and subsequently couple with N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride. Colorimetrically detect the resulting highly colored azo dye at 540 nm. A calibration curve allows accurate quantitation of the detected nitrite.

Nitrite Nitrogen SFA.pdf

This method is used for the determination of nitrite nitrogen in drinking water, groundwater, surface water, and domestic and industrial wastes according to USEPA Method 353.2 and Standard Methods 4500–NO3- I. Additionally, this method enables nitrite analysis according to ISO Method 13395. This method can also be used for the determination of nitrite nitrogen in Potassium chloride (KCl) extracts of soils and plants.

Diazotize any nitrite originally present in the sample with sulfanilamide and subsequently couple with N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride. Colorimetrically detect the resulting highly colored azo dye at 540 nm. A calibration curve allows accurate quantitation of the detected nitrite.

Orthophosphate FIA.pdf

This method is used for determining orthophosphate in drinking, surface, as well as in domestic and industrial wastes according to USEPA Method 365.1 and Standard Method 4500–P G. Additionally, this method enables orthophosphate analysis according to ISO Method 15681-1. This method can also be used for the determination of orthophosphate in potassium chloride (KCl) extracts of soils and plants.

Orthophosphate reacts with molybdenum (VI) and antimony (III) in an acid medium to form an antimony-phosphomolybdate complex. This complex is subsequently reduced with ascorbic acid to form a blue color, and the absorbance is measured at 880 nm.

Orthophosphate in Seawater SFA.pdf

This method is used to determine orthophosphate in estuarine and coastal waters (seawater) according to USEPA Method 365.5 and Standard Methods 4500– P F. This method can also be used to analyze low-turbidity limnological and fresh water samples. Additionally, this method enables orthophosphate analysis according to ISO Method 15681-2.

Orthophosphate reacts with molybdenum(VI) and antimony(III) in an acidic solution to form an antimony-phosphomolybdate complex. Ascorbic acid subsequently reduces this complex to form a blue color, and the absorbance is measured at 880 nm.

Orthophosphate SFA.pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of orthophosphate in drinking water, surface water, and domestic and industrial wastes according to USEPA Method 365.1 and Standard Methods 4500–P F. This method can also be used for the determination of orthophosphate in saline water and potassium chloride (KCl) extracts of soils and plants. Additionally, this method enables orthophosphate analysis according to ISO method 15681–2.

Orthophosphate reacts with molybdenum(VI) and antimony(III) in an acidic solution to form an antimony-phosphomolybdate complex. This complex is subsequently reduced with ascorbic acid to form a blue color, and the absorbance is measured at 660 nm.

Post-Distillation Phenol FIA.pdf
  

This method is used for determining phenolic compounds in drinking water, surface water and and domestic and industrial wastes according to USEPA Method 420.4. Additionally, this method enables phenol index analysis according to ISO Method 14402.

Prior to analysis, the phenol is distilled off-line from an acidic solution at 160 °C. Phenol reacts with 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) and alkaline ferricyanide (FeCN) to form a red complex. The absorbance is measured at 505 nm.

Post-Distillation Phenol SFA.pdf
  

This method is used for determining phenolic materials in drinking water, surface water, and domestic and industrial wastes according to USEPA Method 420.4. Additionally, this method enables phenol index analysis according to ISO Method 14402.

Phenol reacts with 4-aminoantipyrine and alkaline ferricyanide to form a red complex that is measured at 505 nm.

Silica in Seawater SFA.pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of silica in estuarine and coastal waters (seawater) according to USEPA Method 366.0. This method can also be used to analyze low-turbidity limnological and fresh water samples. Additionally, this method enables silica analysis according to ISO Method 16264.

Silica in solution as silicic acid or silicate reacts with a molybdate reagent in acid media to form ß-molybdosilicic acid. The complex is reduced by ascorbic acid to form molybdenum blue. The absorbance is measured at 815 nm. The quality of the analysis is assured through reproducible calibration and testing of the Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).

Silica Standard Methods SFA.pdf
  

This method is used for determining silica in surface water and domestic and industrial wastes according to Standard Methods 4500-SiO2 E.

Silica in solution as silicic acid or silicate reacts with a molybdate reagent in acid media to form ß-molybdosilicic acid; heating converts “molybdate-unreactive” silica to “molybdatereactive” varieties. The complex is then reduced by 1-amino-2-napthol-4-sulfonic acid to form molybdenum blue. The absorbance is measured at 815 nm.

Silica FIA.pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of silica in surface water and domestic and industrial wastewater according to USGS Method I-2700-85 and upon Standard Methods 4500–SiO2 F. Additionally, this method enables silica analysis according to ISO Method 16264.

Silica in solution as silicic acid or silicate reacts with a molybdate reagent in acid media to form ß-molybdosilicic acid. The complex is reduced by stannous chloride to form molybdenum blue. The absorbance is measured at 815 nm.

Sulfate FIA.pdf
  

This method is used for determining sulfate in drinking water, surface water, and domestic and industrial wastes according to USEPA method 375.2 and Standard Methods 4500–SO42- G. Additionally, this method enables sulfate analysis according to ISO Method 22743.

Within the pH range of 2.5–3.0, sulfate ions react with a barium-methylthymol blue (BaMTB) complex to form barium sulfate (BaSO4) and free methylthymol blue (MTB). The analytical stream is then made highly basic (pH 12.5–13.0). At this pH, the absorbance maximum for the BaMTB complex is 610 nm while that of free MTB is 460 nm. Given that the molar concentrations of barium and MTB are approximately equal and that the maximum sulfate concentration to be measured does not exceed the concentration of the BaMTB complex, the sulfate concentration is directly proportional to the free MTB concentration measured at 460 nm.

The sulfate calibration curve is nonlinear. Colovos et al. have attributed this to the formation of a binuclear BaMTB complex and to impurities in commercially available MTB dye. The quality of the analysis is assured through reproducible calibration and testing of the Flow Injection Analysis (FIA).

Sulfide Standard Methods FIA.pdf
  

This method is used for determining sulfide in drinking water, surface water, saline water, and domestic and industrial wastes according to Standard Methods 4500–S2- D.

Sulfide reacts with p-aminodimethylaniline (p-AMA) and ferric chloride to form methylene blue. The absorbance is measured at 660 nm. This method does not detect acid insoluble sulfides.

TKN FIA.pdf
  

This method is used for determining Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) in drinking water, surface water, and domestic and industrial wastes according to USEPA Method 351.2 and Standard Methods 4500–Norg D. This method can also be used for the determination of TKN in potassium chloride (KCl) extracts of soils and plants.

Digest the sample prior to analysis in the presence of sulfuric acid, potassium sulfate, and a mercury catalyst at a final temperature of 380 °C. Free ammonia and organic nitrogen compounds convert to ammonium sulfate under these conditions. Copper catalysts can be used, however, the green color of the catalyst interferes with the method. The ammonium reacts with salicylate and hypochlorite in a buffered alkaline solution in the presence of sodium nitroferricyanide (pH 12.8–13) to form the salicylic acid analog of indophenol blue. Measure the blue-green color produced at 660 nm.

TKN SFA.pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) in drinking water, surface water, and domestic and industrial wastes according to USEPA Method 351.2 and Standard Methods 4500–Norg D. This method can also be used for the determination of TKN in potassium chloride (KCl) extracts of soils and plants.

The sample is digested prior to analysis in the presence of sulfuric acid, potassium sulfate, and a mercury catalyst at a final temperature of 380 °C. Free ammonia and organic nitrogen compounds are converted to ammonium sulfate under these conditions. The ammonium reacts with salicylate and hypochlorite in a buffered alkaline solution in the presence of sodium nitroferricyanide (pH 12.8–13) to form the salicylic acid analog of indophenol blue. The blue-green color produced is measured at 660 nm.

Total Alkalinity FIA.pdf
  

This method is used for determining total alkalinity in drinking water, surface water, and domestic and industrial wastes according to USEPA Method 310.2.

Samples are mixed with a methyl orange indicator solution that is weakly buffered at pH 3.1. Alkalinity from carbonates, bicarbonates, and hydroxides causes the color of the indicator solution to change from red to yellow. The absorbance is measured at 550 nm, which is the wavelength of the maximum absorbance of the red form of the indicator. Since methyl orange alkalinity is an inverse chemistry, the absorbance decreases as alkalinity increases. The decrease in absorbance at 550 nm is directly proportional to the sample alkalinity.

Total Phosphorus FIA.pdf
  

This method is used for determining total phosphorus in drinking, surface, and domestic and industrial waste according to U.S. EPA Method 365.4 and Standard Methods 4500–P G. This method can also be used for the determination of total phosphorus in potassium chloride (KCl) extracts of soils and plants.

Prior to analysis, digest samples using Kjeldahl digestion to hydrolyze phosphorus to orthophosphate. Orthophosphate reacts with molybdenum (VI) and antimony (III) in an acidic media to form an antimony-phosphomolybdate complex. Reduce this complex with ascorbic acid to form a blue color, and measure the absorbance at 880 nm.

Total Phosphorus in Persulfate Digests SFA.pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of total phosphorus in surface water, drinking water, and domestic and industrial wastes according to USEPA method 365.1 and Standard Methods 4500–P B/F. Additionally, this method enables total phosphorus analysis according to ISO Method 15681-2. This method can also be used to determine total phosphorus in potassium chloride (KCl) extracts of soils and plants.

Prior to analysis, samples are digested via persulfate digestion to hydrolyze phosphorus to orthophosphate. Orthophosphate reacts with molybdenum(VI) and antimony(III) in an acidic solution to form an antimony-phosphomolybdate complex. This complex is subsequently reduced with ascorbic acid to form a blue color, and the absorbance is measured at 880 nm.

The quality of the analysis is assured through reproducible calibration and testing of the Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA) system.

Total Phosphorus SFA.pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of total phosphorus in drinking water, surface water, and domestic and industrial wastes according to USEPA Method 365.4 and Standard Methods 4500–P B/F. This method can also be used to determine total phosphorus potassium chloride (KCl) extracts of soils and plants.

Prior to analysis, samples are digested via Kjeldahl digestion to hydrolyze phosphorus to orthophosphate. Orthophosphate reacts with molybdenum(VI) and antimony(III) in an acidic solution to form an antimony-phosphomolybdate complex. Ascorbic acid reduces this complex to form a blue color, and the absorbance is measured at 660 nm.

Cyanide

Available Cyanide.pdf

Prior to analysis, treat the sample to remove potential interferences. Add ligand exchange reagents to the sample. Thermodynamically stable complexes form with the transition metal ions, releasing cyanide ion from cyano-complexes. Inject an aliquot of the treated sample into the FIA system. Adding hydrochloric acid converts cyanide ion to hydrogen cyanide (HCN) gas, which passes under a gas diffusion membrane. HCN gas diffuses through the membrane into an alkaline receiving solution where it converts back to cyanide ion. A silver working electrode, silver/silver chloride reference electrode, and platinum/ stainless steel counter electrode at an applied potential of zero volt amperometrically monitor the cyanide ion. The current generated is proportional to the cyanide concentration present in the original sample.

Postdistillation Cyanide.pdf

Prior to analysis, off-line manual distillation releases cyanide from cyanide complexes. Cyanide collects in a sodium hydroxide receiver solution. Reaction with chloramine-T trihydrate at a pH less than 8 converts sodium cyanide to cyanogen chloride. Cyanogen chloride then reacts with pyridine-barbituric acid to form a red-colored complex. The absorbance is measured at 570 nm.

Total Cyanide.pdf

Prior to analysis, treat the sample to remove potential interferences. Ultraviolet (UV) digestion releases cyanide from cyanide complexes. Acid addition converts cyanide ion to hydrogen cyanide (HCN) gas, which passes under a gas diffusion membrane. HCN gas diffuses through the membrane into an alkaline receiving solution, where it converts back to cyanide ion. A silver working electrode, silver/silver chloride reference electrode, and platinum/stainless steel counter electrode at an applied potential of zero volt amperometrically monitor the cyanide ion. The current generated is proportional to the cyanide concentration present in the original sample.

Flow Solution 3000

A Blank FS3000 Flow Diagram.pdf
  

A Blank Flow Diagram FSIV

A Blank Flow Diagram FS3000.pdf
  

A Blank Flow Diagram FS3000

Alkalinity, USEPA by Flow Injection Analysis (FIA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of alkalinity in drinking water, surface water, saline water, and domestic and industrial wastes according to USEPA Method 310.2 (Reference 15.4).

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 1.3 mg/L calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The applicable range of the method is 10–600 mg/L calcium carbonate. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Ammonia Nitrogen, USEPA by Flow Injection Analysis (FIA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of ammonia in drinking water, surface water, and domestic and industrial wastes according to USEPA Method 350.1 (Reference 15.4).

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.002 mg/L ammonia as nitrogen (N). The applicable range of the method is 0.01–25 mg/L ammonia as nitrogen. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Bromide
by Flow Injection Analysis (FIA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of bromide in natural water and wastewater.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.020 mg/L bromide. The applicable ranges of the method are 0.20–50 mg/L bromide using a 200–μL sample loop, 0.10–10 mg/L using a 200–μL sample loop, and 0.50–100 mg/L using a 30–μL sample loop. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution or injection of different sample volumes.

Chloride by Flow Injection Analysis (FIA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of chloride in drinking water, surface water, saline water, and domestic and industrial wastes (Reference 15.2).

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.060 mg/L chloride (Cl). The applicable range of the method is 0.3–200 mg/L chloride. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

  

This method is used for the determination of total cyanide in drinking and surface waters, as well as domestic and industrial wastes. Cyanide ion (CN–), hydrogen cyanide in water (HCN(aq)), and the cyano-complexes of zinc, copper, cadmium, mercury, nickel, silver, and iron may be determined by this method. Cyanide ions from Au(I), Co(III), Pd(II), and Ru(II) complexes are only partially determined.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.2 μg/L cyanide. The applicable range is 2.0 μg/L to 5.0 mg/L cyanide using a 200-μL sample loop. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution or by reducing the sample loop volume.

Method OIA-1677: Available Cyanide by Ligand Exchange and Flow Injection Analysis (FIA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of available cyanide in water and wastewater by ligand exchange, flow injection analysis, and amperometric detection according to USEPA Method OIA-1677 (References 15.3, 15.4, 15.9, and 15.10). This method is used in the USEPA’s data gathering and monitoring programs associated with the Clean Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, and Safe Drinking Water Act.

Cyanide ion (CN–), hydrogen cyanide in water (HCN(aq)), and the cyano-complexes of zinc, copper, cadmium, mercury, nickel, and silver may be determined by this method. The presence of polysulfides and colloidal material may prove intractable for application of this method.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.5 μg/L cyanide (Reference 15.9). The applicable range of the method is 2.0 μg/L (ppb) to 5.0 mg/L (ppm) cyanide using a 200-μL sample loop. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution or changing the volume of the sample loop.

Fluoride by ISE and Combined Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) and Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of fluoride in drinking water, surface water, and domestic and industrial wastes using an ion selective electrode (ISE) (Reference 15.2).

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.02 mg/L fluoride. The applicable range of the method is 0.20–8.0 mg/L fluoride. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Hexavalent Chromium by Flow Injection Analysis (FIA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of hexavalent chromium in water, including groundwater, and domestic and industrial wastes.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.004 mg/L hexavalent chromium. The applicable range of the method is 0.01–10 mg/L hexavalent chromium. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Nitrate plus Nitrite Nitrogen and Nitrite Nitrogen, USEPA by Flow Injection Analysis (FIA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of nitrate (NO3–) plus nitrite (NO2–) or nitrite singly in drinking water, groundwater, surface water, saline water, and domestic and industrial waste according to USEPA Method 353.2 (Reference 15.7).

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.001 mg/L nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen. The applicable range of the method is 0.01–10 mg/L. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Ortho Phosphate Low level FS3000 Flow Diagram.pdf
  

Ortho Phosphate Low level FS3000 Flow Diagram

Orthophosphate, USEPA by Flow Injection Analysis (FIA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of orthophosphate in drinking, surface, and saline waters, as well as domestic and industrial wastes according to USEPA Method 365.1 (Reference 15.4).

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.001 mg/L orthophosphate as phosphorus. The applicable range of the method is 0.01–2.00 mg/L orthophosphate as phosphorus. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Post-Distillation Phenol by Flow Injection Analysis (FIA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of phenolic compounds in drinking water, surface water and saline water, and domestic and industrial wastes (Reference 15.2).

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 5.0 μg/L phenol. The applicable range of the method is 10.0–2,000 μg/L phenol. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Post-Distillation Cyanide by Flow Injection Analysis (FIA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of cyanide (CN) in distilled samples.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.11 μg/L cyanide. The applicable range of the method is 2.0–500 μg/L cyanide. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Silica by Flow Injection Analysis (FIA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of silica in surface water and domestic and industrial wastewater.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.035 mg/L silica (SiO2). The applicable range of the method is 0.10–100 mg/L silica. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Sulfate by Flow Injection Analysis (FIA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of sulfate in drinking water, surface water, saline water, and domestic and industrial waste (References 15.4 and 15.5).

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 1.61 mg/L sulfate. The applicable range of the method is 2.0–200 mg/L sulfate. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Sulfide by Flow Injection Analysis (FIA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of sulfide in drinking water, surface water, saline water, and domestic and industrial wastes.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.002 mg/L sulfide. The applicable range of the method is 0.005–20.0 mg/L sulfide. A range of 0.005–1.00 mg/L sulfide is achieved using a 200-μL sample loop. Use a 100-μL sample loop to attain a range of 0.100–20.0 mg/L sulfide. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen by Gas Diffusion and Flow Injection Analysis (FIA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) in drinking water, surface water, and domestic and industrial wastes.

Nitrogen components of biological origin such as amino acids, proteins, and peptides are converted to ammonia via Kjeldahl digestion. It may not convert nitrogenous compounds of some industrial wastes, such as amines, nitro compounds, hydrazones, oximes, semicarbazones, and some refractory tertiary amines.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.02 mg/L TKN. The applicable range of the method is 0.20–10 mg/L TKN using a 200-μL sample loop. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), USEPA by Flow Injection Analysis (FIA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) in drinking water, surface water, saline water, and domestic and industrial wastes according to USEPA Method 351.2 (Reference 15.4).

During digestion, amino acids, proteins, peptides, and other nitrogen compounds of biological origin are converted to ammonium sulfate. Nitrogenous compounds of some industrial wastes, such as amines, nitro compounds, hydrazones, oximes, semicarbazones, and some tertiary amines, may not be converted.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.013 mg/L TKN. The applicable range of the method is 0.05–20 mg/L TKN. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Total Phosphorus USEPA by FIA flow diagram.pdf

Total Phosphorus USEPA by FIA flow diagram

Total Phosphorus, USEPA by Flow Injection Analysis (FIA).pdf

This method is used for the determination of total phosphorus in drinking, surface and saline waters, domestic and industrial wastes according to USEPA Method 365.1 (Reference 15.4).

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.005 mg/L phosphorus. The applicable range of this method is 0.02 to 20.0 mg/L phosphorus. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by changing the size of the sample loop.

Flow Solution IV

Alkalinity, USEPA by Flow Injection Analysis (FIA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of alkalinity in drinking water, surface water, saline water, and domestic and industrial wastes according to USEPA Method 310.2 (Reference 15.4).

The applicable range of the method is 10–200 mg/L calcium carbonate (CaCO3) using a 100-μL sample loop. Using a 50-μL sample loop, the range is 25 500 mg/L calcium carbonate. The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 2.1 mg/L calcium carbonate using the 100-μL sample loop and 3.0 mg/L calcium carbonate with the 50-μL sample loop. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Ammonia Nitrogen, USEPA by Flow Injection Analysis (FIA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of ammonia in drinking water, surface water, and domestic and industrial wastes, according to USEPA Method 350.1 (Reference 15.4).

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.002 mg/L ammonia as nitrogen (N). The applicable range of the method is 0.01–25 mg/L ammonia as nitrogen. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Ammonia Nitrogen, USEPA by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of ammonia in drinking water, surface water, and domestic and industrial wastes, according to USEPA Method 350.1 (Reference 15.4).

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.002 mg/L ammonia as nitrogen (N). The applicable range of the method is 0.01–25 mg/L ammonia as nitrogen. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Amylose in Rice Extracts by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of amylose in rice extracts.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.080 mg/L. The applicable range of the method
is 1.0–500.0 mg/L amylose in rice extracts. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Anionic Surfactants by Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of anionic surfactants in fresh water and wastewaters.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.005 mg/L for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The applicable range for these surfactant types is 0.03 5.0 mg/L as methylene blue active substances (MBAS), based on sodium dodecyl sulfate and/or 1 dodecanesulfonic acid. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Bitterness in Beer by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the automated determination of bitterness in filtered beer or wort.

The applicable range of this method is 1.0–200.0 international bitterness units (IBU).

Boron by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of boron in fresh water.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.02 mg/L boron. The applicable range of the method is 0.2–20 mg/L boron. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Bromide by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of bromide in drinking water, surface water, saline water, and domestic and industrial wastes.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.10 mg/L bromide. The applicable range of the method is 0.20–10 mg/L bromide. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Chloride by Flow Injection Analysis (FIA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of chloride in drinking water, surface water, saline water, and domestic and industrial wastes.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.31 mg/L chloride. The applicable range of the method is 1.0–200 mg/L chloride. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Chloride
by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of chloride in drinking water, surface water, saline water, and domestic and industrial wastes.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.31 mg/L chloride. The applicable range of the method is 1.0–200 mg/L chloride. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Post-Distillation Cyanide by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of cyanide in distilled samples that includes water, wastewater, soil, and sludge.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) for this method is 2.6 μg/L. The applicable range of this method is 5.0–500 μg/L. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Color in Water by Combined Flow Injection Analysis and Segmented Flow Analysis (FIA-SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of color in water in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 18th Edition, Method 2120B (Reference 15.2). Color measurements are performed with respect to a platinum-cobalt reference; therefore, the unit of measure for this method is Pt-Co Color Units (CU).

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.6 CU. The applicable range of the method is 5.0–25.0 CU. The range may be extended for the analysis of higher concentrations by sample dilution and/or use of higher order curve-fitting techniques.

Fluoride by ISE and Combined Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) and Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of fluoride in drinking water, surface water, and domestic and industrial wastes using an ion selective electrode (ISE) (Reference 15.2).

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.005 mg/L fluoride. The applicable range
of the method is 0.20–8.0 mg/L fluoride. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Hardness by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of hardness in drinking water, surface water, and process water.

In the standard cartridge configuration, the Method Detection Limit (MDL) is 2.0 mg/L calcium carbonate (CaCO3) with an applicable range of 30–400 mg/L calcium carbonate. The MDL for the low range configuration of the cartridge is 0.5 mg/L calcium carbonate with an applicable range of 5 100 mg/L calcium carbonate. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Hexavalent Chromium by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of hexavalent chromium in water, including groundwater, and domestic and industrial wastes.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.004 mg/L hexavalent chromium. The applicable range of the method is 0.01–2.5 mg/L hexavalent chromium. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Ammonia in Seawater by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of ammonia in seawater.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.077 μmoles/L. The applicable range of the method is 0.10–5.0 μmoles/L. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Ammonia in Soil and Plant Extracts by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of ammonia in soil and plant extracts.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.01 mg/L ammonia as nitrogen (N). The applicable range of the method is 0.20–250 mg/L ammonia as nitrogen. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Nicotine in Tobacco by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of nicotine in tobacco abstracts.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 1.0 mg/L. The applicable range of the method is 4.0–200 mg/L. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Nitrate plus Nitrite and Nitrite in Seawater by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used to determine the concentration of nitrate (NO3–) plus nitrite (NO2–) or nitrite singly in seawater.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.007 μmoles/L. The applicable range of the method is 0.02–40 μmoles/L nitrate plus nitrite and nitrite. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

  

This method is used to determine the concentration of nitrate (NO3–) nitrogen plus nitrite (NO2–) nitrogen or nitrite nitrogen singly in soil and/or plant extracts.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) for this method is 0.004 mg/L nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen. The range of this method is 0.10–50 mg/L. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution or by the use of higher order curve fitting techniques.

  

This method is used for the determination of nitrate (NO3–) plus nitrite (NO2–) or nitrite singly in
drinking water, groundwater, surface water, saline water, and domestic and industrial waste according to USEPA Method 353.2 (Reference 15.7).

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.001 mg/L nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen. The applicable range of the method is 0.005–10.0 mg/L. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

On-Line Distillation Cyanide by UV Digestion and Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of cyanide in drinking water, surface water, and domestic and industrial wastes. Note: This method is not approved for the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES).

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 1.5 μg/L cyanide. The applicable range of the method is 5.0–500 μg/L cyanide. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

On-Line Distillation Phenol by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of phenolic compounds in drinking water, surface water, saline water, and domestic and industrial wastes (Reference 15.2).

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 1.0 μg/L phenol. The applicable range of the method is 5.0–500 μg/L phenol. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Orthophosphate, USEPA by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA) or Flow Injection Analysis (FIA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of orthophosphate in drinking, surface, and saline waters, as well as domestic and industrial waste according to USEPA Method 365.1 (Reference 15.4).

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) is 0.001 mg/L phosphorus. The applicable range of this method is 0.01 to 1.0 mg/L phosphorus. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Orthophosphate in Soil Extracts by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of orthophosphate in soil extracts.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.02 mg/L phosphorus (P). The applicable range of the method is 0.2–100 mg/L phosphorus. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Low-Level Orthophosphate by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of low level orthophosphate.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.266 ppb orthophosphate. The applicable range of the method is 1.0 ppb–1.0 ppm orthophosphate. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution (Reference 15.2).

Orthophosphate in Seawater by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of orthophosphate in seawater.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.009 μmoles/L orthophosphate. The applicable range of the method is 0.02–10 μmoles/L orthophosphate. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Penicillin by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of penicillin in pharmaceutical preparations.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.01 mg/L ammonia as nitrogen (N). The applicable range of the method is 0.20 The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 3 units/mL penicillin. The applicable range of the method is 300–6,000 units/mL penicillin. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Post-Distillation Phenol by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of phenolic materials in drinking, surface, and saline waters, as well as domestic and industrial wastes.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 1.0 μg/L phenol. The applicable range of the
method is 5.0–500 μg/L phenol. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution, or by the use of higher order curve fitting techniques.

Orthophosphate in Soft Drinks by SFA.pdf
  

The soft drink, which contains high concentration of orthophosphate typically due to the addition of phosphoric acid, is directly sampled, delivering a known aliquot of each sample to the analytical cartridge. The sample is then diluted within the cartridge prior to the reaction. The orthophosphate in the sample reacts with molybdenum(VI) and antimony(III) in an acidic medium to form an antimony-phosphomolybdate complex. This complex is subsequently reduced with ascorbic acid, producing a highly colored blue product. The absorbance of the final product is measured at 880 nm.

Potassium by Flame Emission Spectrometry and Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA).pdf
  

This method describes the configuration, calibration, and operation of the Flow Solution® IV system equipped with a flame photometer, which is used for the analysis of potassium in drinking water, surface water, saline water, and domestic and industrial wastes. For detailed information on the flame photometer, refer to the operator’s manual provided with the instrument.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.1 mg/L potassium. The applicable range of the method is 0.5–200 mg/L potassium. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Reducing Sugars in Tobacco by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of reducing sugars in tobacco extracts.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 1.5 mg/L. The applicable range of the method is 50–1,500 mg/L. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Reducing Sugars in Wine by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of reducing sugars in both dry red and white wine, fortified wines, and sweet wines. Juices may also be analyzed using this method.

The applicable range of this method is 0.15 to 10g/L reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) with a single dialyzer and 1 to 200 g/L with two dialyzers in series. The range may be further extended by sample dilution.

Silica by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of silica in surface water and domestic and industrial wastewater.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.014 mg/L silica (SiO2). The applicable range of the method is 0.10–60 mg/L silica. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Silica in Seawater by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of silica in seawater.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.071 μmoles/L silica as silicon (Si). The applicable range of the method is 0.35–35 μmoles/L Si. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Sulfide by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of sulfide in drinking water, surface water, saline water, and domestic and industrial wastes.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.04 mg/L sulfide. The applicable range of the method is 0.20–20 mg/L sulfide. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Sulfite by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of sulfite in drinking water, surface water, saline water, and domestic and industrial wastes.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.052 mg/L sulfite (SO32–). The applicable range of the method is 0.20–30 mg/L sulfite. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) in Soil and Plant Digestates by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) in soil and plant digestates.

During digestion, amino acids, proteins, peptides, and other nitrogen compounds of biological origin are converted to ammonium sulfate. Nitrogenous compounds of some industrial wastes, such as amines, nitro compounds, hydrazones, oximes, semicarbazones, and some tertiary amines, may not be converted.

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), USEPA by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) in drinking water, surface water, saline water, and domestic and industrial wastes according to USEPA Method 351.2 (Reference 15.4).

During digestion, amino acids, proteins, peptides, and other nitrogen compounds of biological origin are converted to ammonium sulfate. Nitrogenous compounds of some industrial wastes, such as amines, nitro compounds, hydrazones, oximes, semicarbazones, and some tertiary amines, may not be converted.

Total Acidity in Wine by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of total acidity in red and white wine, as well as grape juices.

The applicable range of the method is 0.35–15 g/L or 0.035–1.5 g/100 mL as tartaric acid. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution. The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method was not determined because total acidity concentrations below 0.01 g/L are not of interest in the analysis of wine.

  

This method is used for the determination of total dissolved nitrogen in drinking water, surface water, saline water, and domestic and industrial wastes.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.02 mg/L nitrogen (N). The applicable range of the method is 0.10–10 mg/L nitrogen. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Total Iron
by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of total iron in drinking water, surface water, saline water, and domestic and industrial wastes.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.01 mg/L iron. The applicable range of the method is 0.10–5.0 mg/L iron. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Total Nitrogen and Crude Protein in Feed by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of total nitrogen and crude protein in animal feed.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 1.0 mg/L nitrogen (N). The applicable range of the method is 3.0–150 mg/L nitrogen or approximately 2–70% protein in a 0.5–1.0 g sample. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

  

This method is used for the determination of total phosphorus in drinking water, surface water, saline water, and domestic and industrial wastes.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.019 mg/L as phosphorus (P). The applicable range of the method is 0.10–10 mg/L phosphorus. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Total Sugar in Tobacco by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of total sugar in tobacco extracts.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 1.0 mg/L. The applicable range of the method is 5.0–500 mg/L. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Total Sulfites in Wine by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of total sulfites (T-SO2) in red and white wine.

The applicable range of the method is 6.0–300 mg/L sulfites (as sulfur dioxide, SO2). The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution. The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method was not determined because total sulfite concentrations below 6.0 mg/L are not of interest in the analysis of wine.

Total Phosphorus, USEPA in Persulfate Digests by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of total phosphorus in drinking, surface and saline waters, domestic and industrial waste according to USEPA Method 365.1 (Reference 15.4).

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.002 mg/L as phosphorus. The applicable range of this method is 0.003 to 10.0 mg/L phosphorus. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Total Phosphorus in Soil and Plant Digestates by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of total phosphorus in soil and plant digestates.

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.03 mg/L phosphorus (P). The applicable range of the method is 0.2–100 mg/L phosphorus. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Total Phosphorus, USEPA by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA) or Flow Injection Analysis (FIA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of total phosphorus in drinking, surface and saline waters, domestic and industrial wastes according to USEPA Method 365.1 (Reference 15.4).

The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method is 0.005 mg/L phosphorus. The applicable range of this method is 0.01 to 1.0 mg/L phosphorus. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution.

Volatile Acidity in Wine by Segmented Flow Analysis (SFA).pdf
  

This method is used for the determination of volatile acidity in red and white wine.

The applicable range of the method is 0.15–1.5 g/L or 0.015–0.15 g/100 mL as acetic acid. The range may be extended to analyze higher concentrations by sample dilution. The Method Detection Limit (MDL) of this method was not determined because volatile acidity concentrations below 0.15 g/L are not of interest in the analysis of wine.